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Thasos is a verdant island. Its highest peak reaches 1203 meters and is located at Ipsarion. The flora of the island includes mainly pine forests and olive groves. Meanwhile, three flora species are included in the European Red Data List. Characteristic of the fauna is that there are no large mammals which is good for sheep farming. Since 1996, the Greek Ornithological Society has integrated Thasos to the network of Important Bird Areas of Greece.

Greek mythology says that the first to inhabit the island was the son or the grandson of Agenor, who became the first King and gave his name to the place. According to another legend, Hercules donated Thasos to Sthenelos and Alcaeus, sons of Androgeo, King of Paros.